I’ve been into radio since I was knee-high, listening to pirate stations like Kiss 103.7 FM in Northern Ireland (when all my favourite stations were shut down I was a very sad 7 year old indeed) and dabbling in Short Wave Listening (I got some “QSL” postcards, e.g., from Russia and the Czech Republic, confirming signal reports). I first transmitted when I was a teenager using CB radio and there’s still the base of a 5/8 wave antenna rusted onto the side of my parents’ house. I also worked for a bit on an FM broadcast student radio station.
CB radio licences only allow transmitting on low power and on frequencies where relatively short range line-of-sight communication is the norm. Amateur (or “ham”) radio operators can use a broader range of frequencies, some of which allow radio waves to be reflected by the ionosphere and so travel long distances. They’re also allowed to use higher power and much more flexible operating modes (examples below). I’d wanted to get a ham licence when I was a teenager, but this requires sitting exams, and I was already doing enough of those!
I forgot all about ham radio until last year, when a friend of a friend featured on a blog by someone “photographing oddballs whom he found eccentrically wandering around London”. Here’s Oliver (M6ODP), radio ham — he’d been walking along the Thames with a handheld radio.
Ham radio still sounded like fun and I’d overcome my hatred of exams, so I Googled around and found that Loughton & Epping Forest Amateur Radio Society (LEFARS) were running weekend courses. I ordered the books, practised a spot of soldering and sums, and passed the Foundation exam on 21 Sept 2014, the Intermediate on 25 Oct 2014, and the Advanced on 8 Dec 2014. Since December, I’ve had a full licence, callsign MØINF.
Before I got my first radio I played with Echolink which is a bit like Skype for radio hams, with the additional feature of allowing remote connections to radio transceivers (combined transmitters and receivers) over the Internet. For example you can connect to a transceiver in the US, listen on whatever radio frequency it’s listening to and also transmit, so anyone using a radio nearby can chat with you. Commonly these are repeaters, transceivers on hilltops and high buildings which listen to signals on one frequency and re-transmit them on another, allowing conversations over longer distances.
My first ham connect was with OE1OMA on 4 Oct 2014. She was in Vienna, using the local OE1XUU repeater on a handheld radio. I dropped in via Echolink on my PC in London.
Very/Ultra High Frequency (VHF/UHF)
I got a handheld radio, the Yaesu FT-60R, which covers the 70cm and 2m bands used for local chat between hams (and lots of other things, such as talking to the International Space Station, but I haven’t got there yet…). I started using the GB3HR (Harrow) and GB3NS (Caterham) repeaters; more recently, GB3LW (London Sound Bank) has come (back) online, and gives great coverage around central London. Conversations vary from geeky talk about… wait for it… ham radio… to general chat with people in and around London who are, e.g., walking their dog across a hill, on a smoking break from a night shift, or driving home from the shops.
Yaesu FT-450D with a WonderLoop
High Frequency (HF)
Radio hams tend to be most interested in international communication, for example on the 20m HF band. Done well, this requires large antennas and high power. I rent a flat in London and haven’t yet found a way to install an outdoor antenna which wouldn’t result in me being evicted. However, I discovered the WonderLoop range of antennas which work indoors on low power. There are several YouTube videos of people using them to make long-distance contacts so I thought I’d give one a go. I got a Yaesu FT-450D to transmit through it.
Surprisingly, the loop works — when conditions are good and when the other end has a decent antenna! My first contact was on 11 January to EC7WA in Spain on SSB. Since then I have spoken to people as far away as Russia and, thanks to particularly good conditions, even the US. I’m mentioned briefly in an American Radio Rely League (ARRL) update:
“Andy Fugard, M0INF, hadn’t heard anything on 10 meters before March 7-8 and using an indoor magnetic loop antenna he worked KI1G, W3LPL, 9A1P, YU1EW, N1UR, AA1K, NC1I and LZ4TX from his apartment in London. You can see the antenna hanging in his window on his QRZ.com page.”
Recently I got a SignaLink interface, a device for connecting my radio to my PC so I can send and receive data. There are many different ways to encode data so that a ham, similarly equipped with radio and PC, can decode it at the other end (hear example recordings of how they sound). So far, I’ve experimented with PSK31 and WSPR (pronounced “whisper”). PSK31 looks a bit like text messaging, with recognised abbreviations of common expressions related to calling and acknowledging message receipt. The furthest I’ve reached is Russia. WSPR is essentially lots of computers saying “Hello there!” to each other via the radio waves in a very robust way, so the signals tend to be detectable even using low power over long distances. If someone receives your message then it’s logged automatically on a central server so you can leave WSPR running overnight and see in the morning how far you reached. My furthest report was from New Zealand. Given my indoor antenna I was very surprised!
Map showing WSRP contacts for one (particularly good!) 24 hour period
I’m only getting started. On the to-do list:
- Experiment with outdoor “stealth” antennas, which won’t annoy the neighbours but are likely to work better than an indoor loop.
- Analyse public data from WSPR. Can I predict how far my signal will reach based on reports from those around me? How does solar activity correlate with how far my signal reaches?
- Relay signals using one of the amateur radio satellites
- Moon bounce: reflecting radio waves off the moon!